The Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election Violence (CIPEV) was the outcome of the Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation Accord of February 28, 2008, negotiated by Kofi Annan and the Panel of Eminent African Personalities, and its sister agreement of March 4, 2008, known as Agenda Item 4, which called for the establishment of a number of bodies of inquiry to address justice and accountability and longer-term issues of governance and the rule of law.
Indonesia and Timor-Leste created the Commission for Truth and Friendship (CTF) bilaterally in 2005. The commission has not yet delivered substantive transitional-justice benefits, and its public hearings have seriously compromised the goals of truth and resconciliation. This report is the first part of an analysis of the CTF, considering the Commission's establishment, terms of reference and hearing process.
Despite considerable progress, rising tensions between and among various actors have illuminated the need to evaluate peace-building efforts from a transitional justice perspective. This report, based on research conducted by ICTJ and Acehnese civil society, aims to provide such an evaluation, paying particular attention to the voices of victims.
Of the more than 30 truth commissions created since the 1980s, four that were organized in Africa and the Americas are notably good examples of how circumstances in each society helped shape the commissions’ work.
More than 30 countries have created truth commissions to investigate and report on human rights abuses. These commissions of inquiry help seek recognition for victims and promote possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy.
The application of transitional justice mechanisms, such as war crimes trials and reparations, has significant flaws in Serbia. Lack of progress may be even greater in truth-seeking and vetting of public officials. Serbia must do much more in all areas of transitional justice, for its own sake and the sake of long-term regional stability.
The War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which began its work 9 March 2005, has been the most significant national effort in Bosnia and Herzegovina to investigate and prosecute persons allegedly involved in serious violations of international law during the 1992–1995 conflict. It also has given the legal community useful experience with a “hybrid” court in which international and national judges serve together.
Two years after the Democratic Republic of Congo held its first elections since independence, the country is at a crossroads. One of the key challenges facing the DRC today is the question of how the country will address the massive human rights atrocities of its recent past to establish a foundation for peace and security, the rule of law and respect for human rights to prevail in the future.
In Colombia, the shifting boundaries between drug trafficking and political crime and the tension between security and human rights pose particular challenges for those seeking accountability for past abuses and respect for human rights.
Indigenous populations throughout the world are widely recognized as groups affected by political and economic marginalization. Countries that have used truth commissions to examine patterns of exclusion—including Chile, Guatemala and Peru—have found clear links between racism, political marginalization, economic exclusion and violence. The Canadian TRC might benefit from exploring these lessons as it carries its work forward.